From saffron to socarrat: the secrets behind authentic Spanish paella

Spanish Paella

Paella (pronounced pai·ei·uh) is a classic Spanish rice recipe that brings together a delightful medley of flavors.

It is a one-pan wonder, traditionally cooked and served in a large, shallow pan.

While its origins lie in Valencia, Spain, it has become a beloved national dish with various regional variations.

Why Spain?

Spanish paella has a fascinating history.

While paella may have ancient roots, its modern form as we know it nowadays emerged in the 19th century.

Its origins lie in the Valencian region, specifically in the rural area around the Albufera lagoon, which is adjacent to the city of Valencia on the Mediterranean coast of Spain.

Farmers and day laborers in Valencia would take leftover food from Moorish feasts and cook it over an open flame during their lunch breaks. This practice gave birth to the delicious Spanish rice and protein dish we know today.

The traditional pan used to cook Spanish paella, known as a paellera, became synonymous with this dish. The Valencian region is believed to be the original home of paella. The dish takes its name from the wide, shallow pan used to prepare it over an open fire. In Valencian/Catalan, “paella” simply means a frying pan.

Spanish Paella

Paella Valenciana

The traditional paella of the Valencia region is called “Paella Valenciana”.

It is believed to be the original recipe and consists of round-grain rice, green beans and butter beans, rabbit and chicken, all cooked in olive oil and chicken broth. This rice dish was seasoned with saffron or substitutes like turmeric and calendula, and sometimes rosemary. Artichoke hearts and stems may be used as seasonal ingredients.

Over time, other popular local variations of paella emerged throughout the Mediterranean area, the rest of Spain, and internationally. Seafood lovers enjoy Spanish paella de marisco (seafood paella), while paella mixta combines meat, seafood, vegetables and rice in a delightful medley.

Paella’s rich heritage symbolizes the union of cultures—the Roman influence providing the utensil (the paellera) and the Arab influence introducing rice as a staple.

What is socarrat in Spanish paella?

Socarrat is the golden-brown crust that forms on the bottom of a well-cooked Spanish paella.

It is a prized and flavorful layer that develops as the rice cooks and absorbs the liquid in the pan. The socarrat adds a delightful contrast in texture to the tender rice and other ingredients, providing a slightly crispy and caramelized bite.

Paella aficionados consider it a sign of a perfectly executed dish!

Spanish Paella

What are essential ingredients for Spanish paella?

What should you definitely add to a Spanish paella?

Here are the key ingredients that make up this delicious dish.

1. Rice

The heart of paella, short-grain rice is essential. It soaks up the flavors and develops a rich, creamy texture.

Choosing the right type of rice is crucial for achieving that perfect texture and flavor. Let’s look into the rice varieties that work best for Spanish paella.

Arroz Bomba (Valencia Rice)

Bomba is the gold standard for Spanish paella. It is a short-grain, almost round rice with a pearly color. What makes bomba exceptional is its ability to absorb 3 times its volume in water during cooking. This means it soaks up more flavor without becoming overly sticky. When cooked, bomba rice expands like an accordion, reaching 3 times the length of the raw grain.

Its texture remains creamy and separate, making it ideal for paella.

Senia and Bahia

These are other short-grain rice varieties similar to bomba.

Like bomba, they also absorb more liquid than average rice grains and retain a creamy texture after cooking.

Arborio Rice

Although not traditional to Spain, arborio rice is commonly used in paella outside of Valencia.

Arborio is known for its high starch content, which results in a creamy consistency. It is the same rice used for making risotto, so it works well in seafood or mixed paellas.

Calasparra Rice

Calasparra is another Spanish short-grain rice variety.

It absorbs flavors beautifully and maintains a firm texture. Calasparra rice is often used in Spanish paella de marisco (seafood paella).

Spanish Paella

2. Saffron

Saffron plays a crucial role in authentic Spanish paella, enhancing both its flavor and appearance.

Known as the “red gold,” saffron infuses paella with an intense and earthy taste. When added early in the cooking process, it releases its unique flavor and aroma, creating a rich and savory profile for the dish.

Saffron adds a beautiful golden hue to the rice, making paella visually appealing. Its color is an integral part of the dish’s identity.

In the Valencian community where paella comes from, saffron is one of the 10 basic ingredients required for an authentic “paella Valenciana.”

You can use saffron powder straight to the paella, or saffron threads: soak them in a couple of tablespoons of water for 10 minutes and then add it all to the paella.

3. Meat & seafood

When preparing Spanish paella, you have several protein options to choose from.

Chicken is a classic choice for paella, it adds a hearty and savory flavor to the dish.

In traditional Valencian paella, rabbit is a common protein. It provides a unique taste and pairs well with the other ingredients.

While not used in all paella variations, seafood is a popular option too. Shrimp, mussels, clams, langoustines, octopus, squid and squid ink can be added for a delightful seafood paella.

Some paella recipes include pork, such as pork loin or chorizo. Chorizo is a flavorful Spanish sausage that adds a smoky and spicy kick to paella, as well as a red color coming from the paprika oil. It goes well with the saffron-infused rice.

4. Vegetables

A variety of vegetables can be added to create a flavorful and colorful dish.

Onions and garlic form the flavor base for paella, they add depth and aroma once fried in Spanish olive oil at the beginning of the preparation.

Tomatoes add a tangy sweetness and contribute to the rich base of the dish.

Cut into bite-sized pieces, green beans provide a fresh and crunchy texture. They are a classic choice for vegetable paella.

Sweet green peas add pops of color and a touch of natural sweetness.

Thinly sliced red bell peppers not only enhance the visual appeal but also contribute a slightly sweet flavor.

Artichoke hearts bring a unique taste and a tender texture.

6. Spices and Herbs

Seasoning is crucial for a well-balanced paella, so not only saffron is key but pepper and salt as well.

Whether sweet or smoked, paprika lends warmth and complexity.

A single bay leaf also enhances the aromatic profile.

7. Liquid

A splash of white wine adds brightness and depth to a Spanish paella.

While traditional paella uses fish stock, chicken broth is a convenient substitute.

Spanish Paella

What are the 3 main types of Spanish paella?

Certainly! There are three main types of paella that showcase the rich diversity of this beloved Spanish dish:

1. Valencian paella (Paella Valenciana)

This is the authentic Spanish paella, originating from Valencia.

It is the best-known version throughout Spain. Key ingredients include a sofrito made with tomato, bell pepper, onion and garlic. Water must be measured carefully to ensure the rice doesn’t become overdone.

The premium meat used in this paella is rabbit.

2. Meat paella

Often enjoyed on Sundays, this paella is a favorite for family gatherings.

It features chicken as the primary meat, along with black pepper, paprika, red peppers and peas.

3. Seafood paella (Paella de Marisco)

A true representation of Mediterranean cuisine, this Spanish paella is a seafood lover’s delight.

It includes ingredients like squid, prawns, mussels and clams. The taste is reminiscent of the ocean, thanks to the iodine-rich seafood.

In coastal areas and beach bars, you’ll often find people enjoying this flavorful dish during the summer.

Feeling adventurous? Then you want to try arroz negro, or a black paella packed with squid ink and squid. What a delight!

Authentic Paella Valenciana Recipe

Here is a traditional Valencian paella recipe that captures the essence of authentic Spanish flavors. This classic dish combines chicken, rabbit, and a medley of vegetables, all infused with saffron and paprika.

If you are hesitant about adding rabbit, you can replace them with pork ribs.

Spanish Paella


  • 2 cups arroz bomba rice (or other short to medium grain round rice like Calasparra or Senia)
  • 1 lb (450 g) chicken, diced
  • 1 lb (450 g) rabbit (or pork ribs), chopped
  • 1 large onion, diced finely
  • 4 medium garlic cloves, sliced
  • 1 red bell pepper, sliced thinly
  • 2 cups (260 g) green beans, chopped into bite-sized pieces
  • 1 large ripe tomato, chopped
  • a pinch of saffron threads, soaked (or saffron powder)
  • 1 tsp sweet paprika
  • 6 cups (1,5 l)vegetable or chicken broth
  • olive oil
  • pepper
  • salt

Cooking method

  1. Heat a paella pan over medium-high heat and coat it with a good splash of olive oil. If you don’t have a paella pan, use a skillet, dutch oven or large frying pan instead.
  2. Add the chicken and rabbit (or pork ribs) to the pan. Stir fry for a couple of minutes until the meat is nicely browned on all sids.
  3. Move the browned meat to the sides of the pan to make space in the center.
  4. Add the sliced garlic and sauté it briefly until fragrant.
  5. Add the chopped tomato, sliced bell pepper and chopped green beans. Stir the vegetables and browned meat well.
  6. Season with sweet paprika and (soaked) saffron threads or saffron powder. These spices will infuse the dish with flavor and color.
  7. Spread the rice evenly across the pan. Season with pepper and salt.
  8. Pour in the vegetable broth. Make sure that the rice is fully submerged.
  9. Simmer the paella gently over medium-low heat uncovered and without stirring. Keep an eye on it and make sure it stays simmering. Add more broth if necessary. The bottom layer of rice will gradually start to caramelize, creating the coveted socarrat.
  10. Cook until the rice is tender and the liquid is absorbed. The crispy socarrat should form at the bottom.
  11. Remove from heat and let it rest for a few minutes. Serve your authentic Spanish paella Valenciana directly from the pan, garnished with lemon wedges.


  • Use high-quality saffron for the best flavor and color.
  • Don’t stir the rice during cooking to achieve the crispy socarrat.
  • Enjoy this dish with family and friends, preferably outdoors, to fully embrace the Spanish paella experience!

Paella is not just a dish: it is a celebration of Spanish culture and culinary heritage.

Interested in another Spanish classic? Check out my blog post about the calçotada!

Buen provecho!

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